June 2020


O P Bhatnagar is Probably the most major voices of Indian English poetry whose collections Assumed Poems (1976), Emotion Fossils (1977), Angels of Retreat (undated), The Audible Landscape, Oneric Visions, Shadows in Floodlight (1984) and Cooling Flames of Darkness (2001) bespeak of political consciousness of the poet. Since it is clear Lower indisputable fact that Indian English poetry can under no circumstances stay away from the socio-political environment of India and poets who usually do not write beneath a single formulation but alternatively start a dialogue amongst ‘person and guy’ so Bhatnagar far too specials with a variety of issues of our Modern society and politics. Dr. A.N. Dwivedi remarks:

“Bhatnagar’s poetry comprehends a great number of themes which right concentrate on the very long ness of his expertise and the solemnity of his involvement inside the affairs of everyday living.” (CIE217)

Bhatnagar’s tackling of political theme is more agency and larger than almost every other Indian English poet for he has touched Pretty much each of the areas of political circumstance. Dr.V.K.Singh observes:
“We find in Bhatnagar a frank analysis from the details of contemporary existence. Bhatnagar descants upon myriad areas of political existence as present at this time. No salient function escapes his keenly discerning eye. Bhatnagar rips open the bosom of several political riddles. He mirrors in advance of us precisely what is what of all political issues.” (152)

Themes like election, bribery, corruption, criminalization of politics, rampant bribery Among the many leaders degrading character of countrywide leaders, division of Culture by communalism, castism, linguism, and regionalism etc plus the utter lack of values in politics are touched by the poet in the remarkably delicate and fantastically sarcastic way which remains to be not becoming surpassed by any poet of Indian English Poetry. His assertion that ‘Indian Poetry in English should be Indian’ cannot be disregarded if we aspire to advertise Indian Literature. Just copying and coping with the English and English Literature is insufficient due to the fact Indian sensibility is not really struggling with the penury of feelings, thoughts and sensibility and because it has its foundation vitality and voice of potentiality. Dr. R.C. Sharma is right when he suggests:

“The key reason why why Bhatnagar advocates generating Indian Poetry in English is beset with conflicts and fears; and these conflicts and concerns are basically Indian. Bhatnagar is acutely aware of your milieu wherein the Indian poet in English life as well as from the duty which the Indian poet in English has to execute.”(79)

O.P.Bhatnagar has dealt with a number of themes like social consciousness, political awareness, love, mother nature, philosophy and Indianness. As outlined by Dr. A. N. Dwivedi:

Bhatnagar’s poetry comprehends an excellent assortment of themes, which specifically concentrate on the largeness of his experienceand the solemnityof his involvement within the affairs of his lifestyle. (CIE,217)

In this manner Bhatnagar understands the tempo and temperature of his moments and appropriately orchestrates his poetry. Bhatnagar’s working with the theme of politics is myriad and real. The different social troubles that agitate the conscience of man are the subjects of his poetry and he tries to toss a great deal of light-weight on all of these. S.C.Bose observes:

“The poetry of O.P.Bhatnagar that has in fact lots of Proportions is also substantial as poetry of political consciousness.” (V. V., 29)

The frank Evaluation of the fact of modern lifestyle, as well as the picturesque delineation make his poetry vibrant and interesting. In accordance with Bhatnagar:

“Almost all of the very important regions of the daily life today are ruled by the quality of political life and atmosphere are generating and living. Politics right now has changed our religious method of life. We have been quickly turning into concerned with a style of nationalism that may outline our role and duties in the generating of the destiny of our Nation in future.” (RC, ‘Introduction’, 8)

As outlined by Bhatnagar:

Indian poetry in English should mostly problem to social and political life of the folks of India and it, ‘ought to democratize its concerns and relations to society and allow it to be a source of shared expectations…it should throw light-weight on the degeneration and corruption corroding identities. It need to communicate of the entire shed of ethical values, the gloom plus the frustrations pervading the Countrywide scene.” (RC, ‘Introduction’9)

Poetry for Bhatnagar is a continuing research and effort to symbolize for a greater socio-political life .to him, it is ‘a self mindful craft shaped and reshaped by frequent follow-refined and retouched By means of the vision. Like lifetime itself, it’s the operate of the gardener who right after eradicating all weeds cultivates it to ultimate growth and flowering. As a result there’s no affect of any particular university of assumed on his poetry. It really is fully his personal- a private experiment inspired by surroundings, ages, situations and earlier mentioned all by human predicament.

The first collection of Bhatnagar Believed Poems (1976) has fantastic offer of poems of political consciousness. The poems rich in considered written content deficiency in emotion like that of passionate poets but the first poem of the collection finds out the whole process of poetic generation. Bhatnagar writes:

“Poetry’s indicating
Like a deity in enshrined
Words on words and phrases, the edifice Create.” (T.P, 5)

Bhatnagar throws ample gentle to the issue regarding God who cannot be solved out in going around the temple through the worshipper. God is really a this means and deity enshrined in words and phrases of poem, the artist alone can expound and seek Him out:

“We may perhaps go round and around the temple
However by no means be all-around God.
We could go spherical and rand an idea
Still never ever be about a believed.” (ibid. 5)

In one of his poems, he predicts the long run as gloomy given that the present:

“The long run seems to be faded
Similar to the blossoms of cacti following dawn
The saints from bars, brothels and night clubs
Tasting of casinos and underworld
Change morals, values and virtues to ice-cream
Licked by exciting loving childness in cones.” (T.P, ten)

Within the poem ‘The new Scale’ Bhatnagar attempts to strike harmony involving a person guy’s meat is an additional gentleman’s poison. The poet finds the dictum worn out in the fashionable context ‘a simple and straightforward male actions lifetime in benefit spoons as he finds dishonesty being the meanest technique for everyday living’. The stark fact of existence could be witnessed as:

“A simple, sincere person
In a very worn out mode
Should still himself find
Measuring everyday living in worth spoons
Bribery, corruption and forgery

For him, a bitter poison be.” (T.P., 12)

Bhatnagar needs to opine that the one particular’s who amass prosperity are classified as the small problem with the desire with their fellow beings, nor do they really feel any immorality in acting rather contrary into the code of carry out. In A different poem ‘A Woe of Wonder’, Bhatnagar expresses our sentiments and helpless Frame of mind. The poet regrets the variety, disintegration that our region possesses currently. The emphasis of your poet is absolutely nothing but Nationality, one particular sentiment and just one Mindset. This concept is penned with the poet as:

“Our is a multiheaded state
On the lookout in no individual path
Trimurti is surely an all inclusive eyesight
From right here to eternity risen
Telling The story of our frivolity.” (T.P., 14)

In the same way from the poem ‘The Bonds of State Care’ the poet reviews about the loyalty and patriotism of Those people Indians who are amassing vanity, wealth and vanity by their services towards the international locations to which they may have immigrated. These so called loyal citizens and tireless patriots pay a visit to India for their very own cause:

“Loyal citizens happy with patriots
Under no circumstances forget about the treatment in their place
And fly back home on occasion
Possibly to select a bride just like a prince
Or invest in of kinds state a jewel of the land
Putting their kingdom in a safety of bands
Sealed with the loyal assurance with a wink
That Even though they do not belong to this country
It certain belongs for their empire.” (T. P., 15)

The second selection Experience Fossils has also some poems of political curiosity. Bhatnagar Even with dealing with the politics within an indirect method hardly fails to pin issue really uncommon phenomena that somehow keep on being hidden from the eye of even all those who have specialised in the game of politics. ‘Crossing The Bar’ is practical poem that lashes on the modern politicians. His touch upon the modern politicians is worthy of quoting:

“Morals as dense
As thick forests
Allow no gentle in;
The sport is weird
Searching loyalties
For romance.” (File.F, 16)

One more noteworthy poem ‘The No Person’s Land’ expresses the idea that flexibility has introduced no racial alter from the life of the people who find themselves still living the dark dungeon of poverty, illiteracy and justice. The movement of liberation was lifted via the masses but only couple of privileged Adult men came forward to control. And when the attempts and sacrifices from the masses resulted results those privileged couple of captured thrown in the country and ongoing ruling around the nation beneath the garb of democracy. Hence the poet feels appropriate:

“Before the British arrived
The land was not ours:
When they left,
It wasn’t ours also
The land belongs
To people who rule;
The Other individuals merely inherit
The no person’s land.” (F.F., 19)

The third selection Angles of Retreat has quite a few considered provoking poems during which the poet explores the which means of your time as is evaluated from your events emerging in the cave of materialism wedded to hypocrisy. The tone of the poet On this selection is satiric and ironical. While in the poem ‘History is often a Sorry go spherical’ the poet wishes to propound the historians typically ignore the significance of the people today at huge and they have a tendency to Enlarge the deeds of a few privileged Gentlemen. The political sycophants don’t have any other strategy for achieving the internet pages of History. The historians feel that their labor in recording titles and tortures serve the cause of National unity and stability and they’re served by political sycophants:

“Political sycophants are their aides
On whose beguiling predictions
They fireplace take in and conduct
The Japanese hearth-stroll displays
To dazzle the now dazed.” (A.R, forty)

Nevertheless political leaders and sycophants overlook which the tyrants and blood suckers should facial area a slide:

“A lot of suppression and far politicking
Ferments its individual defeat
Forcing the masses to forge
While in the smithy in their conscience
The invisible weapons of their conscience
The invisible weapons in their slide
Crowning disgrace within the foreheads of tyrants
And nailing bitter truths
On the crossroads periods.” (A.R.forty one)

‘Beggars is often Choosers’ is actually a outstanding poem wherein the poet extends his sympathy to the poor, homeless deceased and propounds that begging is not really an evil as those who are harbored by shallow careerists, dare devil smugglers and dishonest blackmarketeers. The beggars are away from the ailment of stress, alienation and lack of id and also the poet concludes:

“All my humanitarian technique
Appeared a snarl to me
And my reformist fervor a celluloid zeal
Minimal realizing that beggars also can be choosers
And small a lot less apprehending
Just how we can misinterpret each other
To help keep our irrational varieties heading
That in unlimited deceit
Conclude the designs of our destiny.” (A.R, forty three)

Equally, in A different poem ‘Ideas on the Election Day’ is yet another poem of political consciousness in which the poet ridicules and paints a really vivid and realistic photograph of ignorant voters and literate officials as follows:

“The ignorant voters of their plan
Queue up day-dreaming
As well as in a passion of the 2nd
Eliminate their oscitant indecision
Stamping symbols for guys.
With a handful of literates
Sealing illiterate favours in metal boxes
And recording the very pleased proportion of poll
A pretty reigns around the polling booths
Like mourners retired from their obsequies.” (A.R., 46)

The hope For brand spanking new political miracles soon after this sort of democratic phenomena in each five calendar year is finely portrayed with the poet who needs to express that Democracy is very little nevertheless the ugly deal with oppression and injustice.

The fourth collection of verse Oneric Visions indirectly muses in excess of the themes of politics whereby several fragments connected with political consciousness are scattered in the quantity. For instance while in the poem ‘If A person Starts off Inquiring Thoughts like Hamlet’ the poet presents a reference to politics:


In Sierra Leone the conditions ‘Formal publications’, Formal documents’, and ‘general public files’ are synonymous with federal government publications. Govt publications, simply put, are documents produced by federal government and local and quasi-governing administration bodies explaining and integrating sights and polices. They depict the historical and current development authorities of presidency and provide details on lots of subjects to incorporate Political Science, Economics, Finance, Statistics, Labor, Field, Record, Global Relations, Agriculture, Geology and Meteorology. Katz (1997) classed these publications into: (one) data of government administration (two).analysis documents for experts such as a substantial variety of figures and details of price to science and company (3).preferred sources of knowledge. Their Bodily sort remaining both a ebook, pamphlet, magazine, report monograph or electronic, Specially CD-ROM (p.387).

Bibliographic Regulate in many areas of the planet is seemingly unsatisfactory owing mostly to not enough awareness of the value of bibliographic tools in exploration in governing administration publications. The us of The united states, such as, was for a long period a pioneer In this particular field. As far back as 1895 the Printing Act of January twelve of that yr (28 statute, 601-624) not merely set up centralized printing and distribution of federal documents and also instructed the Superintendent of Files to offer acceptable equipment for bibliographic Charge of the paperwork published. Great Britain is An impressive exception for as far back as 1807 collections of parliamentary papers ended up printed. International locations for instance Sweden, Italy, Netherlands, Germany and Japan commenced separating authorities document bibliographies mostly during the twenties and 1930s (Palic,1975). Nevertheless an incredible require for your use of government publications was felt next Environment War eleven (1939-1945), when there was an elevated desire inside the authoritative information and facts contained in these kinds of publications as posited by Kid’s (1942) in his introductory notes that ‘A growing number of the value of govt documentation is becoming acknowledged despite the refractory nature of Many of these elements’

In parallel the emphasis made on the usefulness of presidency publications in Sierra Leone is connected to the development of printing which can be traced way back to the founding with the Colony of Sierra Leone in 1787. Even though the field did not endure the French assault of 1794 the inspiration stone of what afterwards turned known as The federal government Printing Section was laid in 1925 when it was billed Along with the production of small notices for official use. At present the Office prints all govt publications and provides stationery and Business office products of government departments. It also undertakes a fair amount of money of commercial printing as cash flow generating actions.

Government publications generally have the advantage of being One of the ideal of their subject fields usually not quickly accessible to others (Smith, 1993). In lieu from the extent and complexity of presidency routines there is a require for your prevalent dissemination of details about these routines and for preferred integration of presidency policy. No surprise why governing administration publications have Particular worth to educational library collections and their authority is permanent. In educational libraries in Sierra Leone these publications are put apart into a special assortment manned by a curator as at Fourah Bay Higher education Library. Some are retained in vertical data files; Other folks are placed in pamphlet containers, whilst These like maps and surveys are given specialised storage. These publications are obtained mainly by order, deposit, donation, exchange and photocopying. The Government Printing Department is responsible for their publication


The expansion of government in Sierra Leone’s article-war reconstruction era at local, national and international stages has resulted in escalating her affect about the lifetime of the citizenry. Concurrently with this growth would be the proliferation of official and semi Formal organizations, commissions and bureaus which continue on to publish will work including directories, restrictions, reviews, charges, Functions and specialized literature which quite a few a scientists, educators, general public assistance functionaries, welfare recipients plus the unemployed can not do devoid of reference to these types of publications. Due to the fact librarians function interface amongst buyers and authorities they have got for extensive regarded the issues which such a plethora of assortment can pose and are producing large strides to address the issue. The essence Here’s to supply systematic controls to steer clear of the disappearance, into oblivion, of important official publications.

In Sierra Leone authorities publications fall inside three basic courses: Government, Legislative ands Judicial. The manager publications involve These issued because of the Workplaces with the President as well as the Vp, and many unbiased offices and institutions for example National Commission for Social Motion (NaCSA), National Profits Authority (NRA), Anti Corruption Commission (ACC), Nationwide Fee for Privatization (NCP) along with the Place of work in the Ombudsman. Also bundled are governing administration ministries such as the Ministries of protection; Schooling, Youth and Athletics; Foreign Affairs and Global Co-Procedure; Tourism and Cultural Affairs; Neighborhood Government and Group Growth; Agriculture, Forestry and Foods Stability; Trade and Sector; Internal Affairs; labor and Industrial Relations; and Improvement and Economic Organizing.

The Ministry of Trade and Field, as an example, is chargeable for the two interior and Worldwide trade as well as advertising of exports. It’s got powers above customs and excise, tariffs, insurance plan, patents, logos, requirements, weights and steps. The Ministry of International Affairs and International Cooperation is liable for Sierra Leone’s romance with international and Commonwealth countries although the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Meals Safety is answerable for administrating federal government policy on agriculture, horticulture and meals security. This Ministry presents useful assistance to farmers, professional producers of horticultural crops and investigate.The Ministry of Inside Affairs offers with the upkeep of law and get, the Police and Fire Forces, administration from the prisons as well as procedure of offenders. Other miscellaneous issues dealt with by this ministry contain explosives, firearms, hazardous medications, prisons, shops, public security, enjoyment, cremation, bylaws and superior rule and official business enterprise. The aforementioned capabilities and related kinds carried out by other ministries have to have the development and upkeep of publications. You can find also documentation of press briefings provided with the assorted heads of ministries and newsletters, which happen to be channels for respective ministries there-by building them additional community-relations aware.

Legislative publications incorporate the data and debates of Parliament plus the reviews of hearings from the diversified Parliamentary Committees. Involved listed here are also several policy statements in reply to parliamentary questions. The Hansard is yet another abundant source for public issues as it provides Formal details and sights about parliamentary debates.

Publications with the Judiciary branch of presidency consist generally of studies of presidency selections by the Justice of the peace, Appeals and Supreme Courts. Found in this arm of presidency are law guides, ‘annual registers’, condition trials and rulings, the Structure, international treaties, protocols, peace accords, Functions, expenditures and digests of regional newspapers. These publications provide the judiciary with pertinent information on multifarious authorized issues. This sort of info is needed to be factual and politically impartial.

The town and District Councils, getting quasi-governing administration establishments, supply paperwork labeled as governing administration publications. These consist of constructing codes, instructional growth, health and sanitation, laws on waste disposal, usage of firearms and fire machines. Also you’ll find federal government departments which offer statistical information on an enormous variety of economic, industrial and social demographic facts. Of central worth are Figures Sierra Leone (formerly Central Statistics Workplace-CSO), accountable for countrywide populace census and residential surveys; the Place of work of Births and Deaths which registers and produces yearly statistics of births and deaths during the nation; the Business on the Registrar General to blame for statutory registration of marriages, patents and emblems; the Chamber of Commerce which specializes on company information and facts. These offices deliver alongside one another essential economic and social figures supplied by federal government departments. Other significant governing administration departments would be the Meteorological Business office, which carries on to provide pertinent climate information, as well as the National Archives, which serves as repository of all non-existing govt publications inclusive of nationwide newspapers. The afore-pointed out authorities publications differ in size and size. Created by specialists in the topic, govt publications are not merely authoritative but additionally timely published and manage topics of latest interest. Their reason, In accordance with Katz (1969), is to offer info and remedy concerns and never to provoke discussion or organizational cataloging and administration. They are really beneficial Main reference sources.


Educational libraries in Sierra Leone are those inside the constituent units that kind the place’s two universities, particularly the University of Sierra Leone plus the College of Njala. These libraries stand for the bibliographic Basis with the country’s research fascination. They participate actively inside the distribution and exchange of guide and non-e-book resources to sister institutions everywhere in the state. Collectively these establishments serve learners, college, scholars and scientists which have been engaged in get the job done from the sciences and humanities in addition to most of the people. These libraries have blended resources of over 500,000 volumes, the majority of which are of exceptional scope and good quality. A part of these huge collections are governing administration publications including treaties, Functions, statistical tables and compilations, conventions and documents of diplomatic relations, reviews of government departments, committees, bureau and commissions, census schedules, proclamations and guidelines. The upkeep, preservation and enhancement of these publications are duties shared by educational librarians as their libraries continue on to function countrywide means.


Different motives have been Superior for that inclusion of government publications in academic libraries in Sierra Leone. The needs of the country’s universities are teaching, services, analysis and interpretation and dissemination of investigation. Society sights govt being a reputable and impartial source of authoritative info that ought to be available to its citizens via its numerous publications. Since educational institutions contend with college students who subsequently is going to be long term citizens these need to be informed appropriately. Government’s stance must be known when There may be general public dialogue on wellness, international relations, schooling, agriculture, social protection and trade, to cite a few illustrations. So the necessity for the event of presidency publications in educational libraries as a result elements could speak for the government in diverse routines. Even further educational libraries hold the aims of preservation, conservation and service. And govt publications kind Section of society’s cultural heritage which want conservation and preservation don’t just for exploration uses but in addition for posterity as tangible Major resources of knowledge which teachers can frequently seek advice from. Minimal ponder why as being a evaluate of bibliographic control of these publications librarians continue on to provide catalog’s, checklists, guides, indexes, accessions lists and chosen basic bibliographies made up of substantial information on authorities publications.

1991-2001 was a period of doom in Sierra Leone since it marked the civil war. Fought because of bad governance, nepotism and massive corruption it led to your un-wanton destruction of life and properties. Vital government buildings0 destroyed to reckless abandon incorporated the Nationwide Treasury, Sierra Leone Police premises, regulation courts and also the workplaces with the Freetown City Council all of which housed crucial paperwork continuously consulted by researchers, govt functionaries and the general public. Not withstanding the place is step by step recovering with the re-establishment of nearby government, multi-party democracy, enhanced human, women and child legal rights, the provision of a conducive environment to expenditure, plus a new technique of training (6-3-three-4), to cite but several developments, the efficient Procedure of which demands continual use of presidency publications.

The wide packages in academic establishments incorporate numerous parts of lifetime While using the teaching of historic and geographic concepts; scientific studies are undertaken for enhanced overall health and foodstuff stability; Intercontinental relations and inter-religious comprehending are fostered. Also modern-day Neighborhood lifestyle and also the philosophy of democracy, peace and conflict resolution, superior governance, human legal rights and various ideologies are taught so as that clever conclusions could be drawn. These made academic programs deliver enrichment and data to college students in these fields as economics, govt, health and fitness and sanitation, agriculture, international relations, human legal rights and diplomacy. In help of these different disciplines tutorial libraries provide substantial collections to include nearby products some of which happen to be in the form of presidency publications whereby students, school and researches could share their ordeals and pursuits and establish satisfactory own adjustment with regard various authorities functionaries in Culture. By so undertaking learners are furnished the chance to grow in social usefulness and build their mental pursuits and capabilities so that you can come to be liable users of Modern society. This in turn could assist advertise nationalism. In lieu of these things tutorial libraries attempt to provide liberal collections to incorporate books, serial publications, audio-visuals and government publications.


Authorities publications are Amongst the most handy elements in academic libraries in Sierra Leone. Aside from the general public library, the national archives and parliament library which serve as repositories for this sort of publications tutorial libraries carry on to produce these publications inside their massive assortment. Nevertheless these types of moves will not be bereft of problems. These vary from weak formats by means of deficiency of trade bibliographies to unsatisfactory ways of distribution. The essential issue to all of these libraries is the amount of publications been given, much of that’s very little but Uncooked facts and data utilized to guidance arguments or gathered more for the sake of gathering instead of for any particular factors. Considering that these libraries have limited House to accommodate their quite a few collections the continued acquisition of government publications poses problems to workers.

Tutorial libraries obtain authorities publications mainly by donations Whilst a couple of are obtained by purchase, exchange and photocopy. Once these elements are received They may be envisioned for being processed and organized for use during the library. Sadly There’s been no fastened sample in classifying and Arranging these products in these libraries. Their Firm is possibly by government ministry/department, topic or structure which is frequently puzzling to customers. At Fourah Bay Faculty library, for example, these publications are placed independently from the final assortment which often constrains customers in being forced to depart their looking at place to consult these materials with confined sitting accommodation. Libraries at Njala College Higher education, Institute of Public Administration and Administration (IPAM) and the College of Medication and Allied Overall health Sciences (COMHAS), that are rather modest in dimension combine the publications in their standard selection thereby posing retrieval challenges to customers.

Holding track of government publications is an additional trouble as there aren’t any trade bibliographies printed out that can help trace them. Rarely are these publications mentioned in the national bibliography, Sierra Leone Publications, well prepared by the public/nationwide library. Moreover The federal government Printing Section chargeable for the manufacturing of presidency publications does not have any thorough lists of its publications. Most moments these publications are both returned promptly to your respective ministries/departments possessing them upon completion or despatched to the Government Bookshop available for sale or offered by The federal government Printing Section upon completion, Therefore rendering it tricky to Find retrospective publications. Even worse continue to both equally the Government Printing Department and the Government Bookshop are not interested in publicizing these publications and therefore many customers including educational librarians aren’t mindful of The provision of applicable federal government publications for acquisition thus triggering lapses in the event of those materials in educational libraries. In parallel a person would count on educational libraries to compile detailed lists of this kind of publications but this has not been the case as a result of minimal range of staff manning this collection as well as the quantum of work they’ve to complete In particular all through peak durations when libraries are intensely applied which happens to be time intensive.